Author: Arjun Upadhyay, Robert Francis, and Mark Roland
Year: 2018
Agency: USAID
Full Citation: Upadhyay, A., Francis, R., and Roland, M. (2018). Affordable Non-State Schools In Contexts Of Crisis And Conflict. Washington DC: USAID
Overview: While significant research has been performed on both non-state education and education in crisis and conflict-affected countries, little has been written on their intersection. This study, performed by Results for Development (R4D) with support from the USAID Education in Crisis and Conflict Network (ECCN), examines the role of affordable non-state schools (ANSS) in conflict and crisis settings, with a focus on basic education. In this report, ANSS are defined as formal and non-formal education institutions that are owned or operated by non-state entities such as private citizens, faith-based organizations, or NGOs, and that target lower-income or marginalized populations. The report offers a number of contributions to the scarce body of literature on this topic, including a synthesis of existing literature on the themes of conflict and crisis and non-state education, a new conceptual framework for understanding the role of ANSS in crisis and conflict-affected settings, and case studies of non-state education in El Salvador and Kaduna State, Nigeria. These components were then used to formulate recommendations for donor and government engagement with non-state schools in these settings.

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