Author: Ozler et al.
Year: 2016
Agency: World Bank
Full Citation: Ozler, B., Fernald, L.C.H., Kariger, P.K., Mcconnell, C., Neuman, M.J., Pinheiro Fraga, E. (2016). Combining preschool teacher training with parenting education : a cluster-randomized controlled trial (Policy Research Working Paper No. 7817) Washington, DC: World Bank Group. Retrieved from
Overview: This paper evaluates a government program in Malawi, which aimed to improve quality at community-based childcare centers and complemented these efforts with a group-based parenting support program.
Findings: Children in the integrated intervention arm (teacher training and parenting) had significantly higher scores in measures of language and socio-emotional development than children in centers receiving teacher training alone at the 18-month follow-up.
  • However, the study finds no effects on child assessments at the 36-month follow-up.
  • Significant improvements at the centers relating to classroom organization and teacher behavior in the teacher-training only arm did not translate into improvements in child outcomes at either follow-up.
The findings suggest that, in resource-poor settings with informal preschools, programs that integrate parenting support within preschools may be more effective than programs that simply improve classroom quality.

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