Author: John Kania and Mark Kramer
Full Citation: Kania, J., & Kramer, M. (2013). Embracing emergence: How collective impact addresses complexity. Stanford Social Innovation Review. Stanford, CA: Leland Stanford Jr. University.
Overview: Kania and Kramer (Stanford Social Innovation Lab) propose a design model they call “Collective Impact” as a new and more effective process for social change.” Emphasizing “the rapid learning that comes from continuous feedback loops,” five key elements of collective impact are described:
- All stakeholders develop/agree on a common agenda
- Agreement on shared measurement of [meaningful] results
- Mutually reinforcing but differentiated activities coordinated through a plan of action
- Continuous communication building trust, reinforcing mutual objectives and creating common motivation
- Backbone support: management, coordination and facilitation for these activities.