Author: David Evans, Michael Kremer and Mũthoni Ngatia
Year: 2008
Agency: World Bank
Full Citation: Evans, D., Kremer, M., and Ngatia, M. (2008). The Impact of Distributing School Uniforms on Children’s Education in Kenya. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.
Resource Type:
Target Population(s):
Overview: This paper evaluates the impact of an educational intervention, in which a Kenyan non-governmental organization distributes school uniforms to children in poor communities. The NGO used a lottery to determine who would receive uniforms. Although compliance with the lottery was not perfect, we use winning the lottery as an instrumental variable to identify the impact of receiving a uniform.
Findings: The research finds that giving a school uniform significantly reduces school absenteeism by 38%. Effects are much larger for poorer students who did not previously own a uniform: a 64% reduction in school absenteeism. Preliminary data suggest positive impacts of uniform distribution on test scores in core subjects.

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